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Foodborne Outbreak Investigations: Response

The table below lists outbreak investigations confirmed or suspected to be associated with FSIS-regulated products.

The Outcomes & References column includes links to recall notices, public health alerts, and after-action review reports, as well as CDC outbreak notices for selected multistate foodborne outbreaks, which provide additional information. For a list of all foodborne outbreaks reported to CDC since 1998, please use the CDC National Outbreak Reporting System Dashboard.

*Last update: Wednesday, February 24, 2021

Outbreak Year Pathogen Product Outcomes & References
2021 open investigations Shiga toxin-producing E. coli  O157:H7 Unknown  CDC Investigation Notice
2021 Listeria monocytogenes Unknown   
2021 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O145 Beef, ground (suspect)  
2020 Listeria monocytogenes Italian-style deli meats (suspect) CDC Investigation Notice
2019 Shiga toxin–producing E. coli O157:H7 Beef, ground FSIS After-Action Review: 2020-04
2019 Salmonella Dublin Beef, ground FSIS Recall: 113-2019
FSIS After-Action Review: 2020-01
CDC Notice: Dublin-11-2019
2019 Shiga toxin–producing E. coli O103 Beef, ground FSIS Recall: 047-2019
CDC Notice: O103-04-2019
2019 Salmonella Schwarzengrund Turkey, ground FSIS Recall: 030-2019
FSIS After-Action Review: 2019-06
CDC Notice: Schwarzengrund-03-2019
2018 Listeria monocytogenes Pork patty rolls FSIS Recall: 116-2018
CDC Notice: Lm-11-2018
2018 Salmonella Reading Turkey, ground FSIS Recall(s): 112-2018124-2018
FSIS After-Action Review: 2018-05
CDC Notice: Reading-07-2018
2018 Salmonella Newport Beef, ground FSIS Recall(s): 085-2018085E-2018
CDC Notice: Newport-10-2018
2018 Listeria monocytogenes Ham, ready-to-eat FSIS Recall(s): 084-2018087-2018
FSIS After-Action Review: 2018-16
CDC Notice: Lm-10-2018
2018 Shiga toxin–producing E. coli O26 Beef, ground FSIS Recall(s): 072-2018081-2018
FSIS After-Action Review: 2018-12
CDC Notice: O26-09-2018
2018 Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:- Chicken FSIS Public Health Alert: 8/24/2018
CDC Notice: Salmonella-08-2018
2018 Salmonella Enteritidis Chicken, raw, breaded FSIS After-Action Review: 2018-10
2018 Salmonella Typhimurium Chicken salad FSIS Recall: 013-2018
FSIS Public Health Alert: 2/14/2018
FSIS After-Action Review: 2018-06
CDC Notice: Typhimurium-02-2018
2017 Shiga toxin–producing E. coli O157:H7 Beef, ground FSIS Recall: 108-2017
2016 Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:- Chicken, rotisserie FSIS Public Health Alert: 10/9/2016
FSIS After-Action Review: 2016-24
2016 Shiga toxin–producing E. coli O157:H7 Beef, ground FSIS Recall: 087-2016
CDC Notice: O157H7-09-2016
2016 Shiga toxin–producing E. coli O157:H7 Beef, ground FSIS Recall: 065-2016
2016 Shiga toxin–producing E. coli O157:H7 Beef, ground FSIS Recall: 064-2016
2016 Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:- Pork (including at pig roasts) FSIS Recall: 062-2016
FSIS Public Health Alert: 7/20/2016
FSIS After-Action Review: 2015-18/2016-13
2016 Shiga toxin–producing E. coli O157:H7 Beef, ground FSIS Recall: 007-2016
2015 Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:- and Salmonella Infantis Pork (including at pig roasts) FSIS Recall: 110-2015
FSIS Public Health Alert: 7/31/2015
FSIS After-Action Review: 2015-18/2016-13
CDC Notice: Salmonella-08-2015
2015 Salmonella Enteritidis Chicken, stuffed FSIS Recall: 101-2015
FSIS Public Health Alert(s): 7/1/20159/17/2015
FSIS After-Action Review: 2015-11/2015-12
CDC Notice: Enteritidis-07-2015
2015 Salmonella Enteritidis Chicken, stuffed FSIS Recall: 096-2015
FSIS Public Health Alert: 7/1/2015
FSIS After-Action Review: 2015-11/2015-12
CDC Notice: Enteritidis-07-2015
2014 Salmonella Enteritidis Chicken, stuffed FSIS Recall: 073-2014
2014 Shiga toxin–producing E. coli O157:H7 Beef, ground FSIS Recall: 053-2014
2014 Shiga toxin–producing E. coli O157:H7 Beef, ground FSIS Recall: 030-2014
CDC Notice: O157H7-05-2014
2014 Salmonella Heidelberg Chicken, mechanically separated FSIS Recall: 001-2014
CDC Notice: Heidelberg-01-2014
2013 Shiga toxin–producing E. coli O157:H7 Chicken (grilled chicken salad) FSIS Recall: 065-2013
2013 Shiga toxin–producing E. coli O157:H7 Beef, ground FSIS Recall: 060-2013
2013 Salmonella Heidelberg Chicken (including rotisserie chicken) FSIS Recall(s): 044-2014058-2013058E-2013
FSIS Public Health Alert: 10/7/2013
CDC Notice: Heidelberg-10-2013
2013 Shiga toxin–producing E. coli O121 Beef, chicken, pork (mini meals/snacks) FSIS Recall: 025-2013
CDC Notice: O121-03-2013
2013 Salmonella Typhimurium Beef, ground (kibbeh) FSIS Recall(s): 008-2013009-2013
CDC Notice: Typhimurium-01-2013
2013 Salmonella Uganda Pork (hog head cheese) FSIS Recall: 007-2013
2013 Shiga toxin–producing E. coli O157:H7 Beef, ground FSIS Recall: 001-2013
2012 Salmonella Enteritidis Beef, ground FSIS Recall: 045-2012
CDC Notice: Enteritidis-07-2012
2012 Salmonella Typhimurium Beef, ground FSIS Recall: 100-2011
CDC Notice: Typhimurium-02-2012
2012 Salmonella Heidelberg Chicken liver FSIS Recall: 090-2011
CDC Notice: Heidelberg-01-2012
2011 Shiga toxin–producing E. coli O157:nonmotile Beef, ground FSIS Recall(s): 062-2011062E-2011
2011 Salmonella Heidelberg Turkey, ground FSIS Recall(s): 060-2011071-2011
FSIS Public Health Alert: 7/29/2011
CDC Notice: Heidelberg-11-2011
2011 Salmonella Hadar Turkey, ground (turkey burgers) FSIS Recall: 028-2011
CDC Notice: Hadar-04-2011
2011 Shiga toxin–producing E. coli O157:H7 Beef (Lebanon bologna) FSIS Recall: 025-2011
CDC Notice: O157H7-03-2011
2010 Shiga toxin–producing E. coli O26 Beef, ground FSIS Recall: 050-2010
2010 Shiga toxin–producing E. coli O157:H7 Bison, ground (voluntary FSIS inspection) FSIS Recall: 043-2010
2010 Salmonella Montevideo Pork (Italian sausage) FSIS Recall(s): 006-2010 & 006-E2-2010006E-2010006E3-2010
CDC Notice: Montevideo-05-2010
2010 Shiga toxin–producing E. coli O157:H7 Beef, ground FSIS Recall: 002-2010
2010 Shiga toxin–producing E. coli O157:H7 Beef, mechanically tenderized and ground FSIS Recall: 067-2009
CDC Notice: O157H7-01-2010
2009 Salmonella Newport Beef, ground FSIS Recall: 065-2009
2009 Shiga toxin–producing E. coli O157:H7 Beef, ground FSIS Recall: 059-2009
CDC Notice: O157H7-11-2009
2009 Shiga toxin–producing E. coli O157:H7 Beef, ground FSIS Recall: 057-2009

*“Suspect” products are under investigation as the potential cause of human illness but have not been confirmed as the source; “confirmed”. products are determined to be the cause of human illness based on epidemiologic, laboratory, environmental assessment, and traceback evidence. 

Frequently Asked Questions

What should I do if I think food made me sick?

If you think you have a foodborne illness, see a health care provider for treatment.  Your health care provider can test you and if the tests show you have a reportable foodborne illness, your state or local public health officials should be notified. If you suspect an FSIS-regulated meat, poultry, or egg product made you sick, see the Report a Problem with Food page for information on how to notify FSIS.

Why is FSIS posting this information?

FSIS is sharing information on active outbreak investigations to increase transparency about the work that FSIS does to investigate and respond to foodborne outbreaks. In an effort to be more transparent and provide timely updates of FSIS’ outbreak investigation actions to better protect consumers, FSIS may publish outbreak data prior to a specific product being identified as the source of an outbreak.

How often will FSIS be updating this information?

FSIS will be updating this table weekly.

Why doesn’t every outbreak on the table include a corresponding FSIS action (e.g., recall, public health alert, or after-action report)?

Unfortunately, public health officials cannot solve every outbreak because evidence needed to identify the source of illness is often difficult to obtain. The outbreak may end before enough information is gathered to identify the source or the source may be identified after the outbreak ends and the risk to the public is over. In addition, an outbreak investigation may end up implicating a product not regulated by FSIS, even if meat and poultry were initially suspected as the source.

Are the outbreaks on this table inclusive of all the foodborne outbreaks in the United States?

No, the outbreaks in this table do not account for all foodborne outbreaks. FSIS routinely monitors clusters of illnesses to determine if FSIS-regulated products may be the source of illnesses. FSIS will post an outbreak investigation to this table when there is compelling evidence that an FSIS-regulated product is the source. When an investigated product is listed as suspected, this does not mean other foods were ruled out as the source of the outbreak.

Does this table include all outbreaks investigated by FSIS?

No. Prior to November 2020, this table only included closed outbreaks in which FSIS responded by posting a recall of FSIS-regulated product linked to illness, a public health alert, and/or an after-action review report.

Are CDC and FDA sharing information with the public about the outbreaks they investigate?

Yes, please see the CDC outbreaks table and the FDA outbreaks table.

Why doesn’t the number of open outbreaks in this table align with the number of outbreaks in the CDC or FDA outbreak table?

The content of the tables depends on who regulates the product associated with the outbreak. FSIS and FDA regulate different products.  FSIS only includes outbreaks that FSIS is investigating on this webpage, which are those that may be associated with meat, poultry, and processed egg products. An outbreak may be included in both the FSIS and FDA outbreak tables if products regulated by both agencies are suspected sources.

Outbreak investigations in which reported illnesses are confined to one state may appear on FSIS’ table, but not CDC’s. This is because CDC generally only coordinates multistate investigations.

What pathogens are involved in FSIS outbreak investigations?

The primary pathogens involved in FSIS outbreak investigations are Salmonella, Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, or Campylobacter.

What is the FSIS process to investigate foodborne illnesses?

If FSIS suspects that an FSIS-regulated product is associated with foodborne illness, FSIS investigates the outbreak per FSIS Directive 8080.3, Foodborne Illness Investigations.

What type of information does FSIS need to take action?

FSIS and partners collect and evaluate epidemiologic, laboratory, environmental assessment, and traceback information to determine if there is a link between an FSIS-regulated product and human illnesses. Additional information is located on the FSIS Information Helpful to FSIS During Foodborne Illness Investigations web page.

What if outbreaks do not appear to be associated with FSIS-regulated products?

FSIS continuously works with public health partners to monitor outbreaks and available epidemiologic, laboratory, environmental assessment, and traceback information to determine if FSIS-regulated products may be causing human illnesses. Even if evidence suggests an outbreak is not associated with an FSIS-regulated product or there is limited information about what products might be associated with illnesses, FSIS may still provide technical assistance, investigative support, and guidance to public health officials or other food safety agencies.

What if I want to know more about a specific outbreak?

Please submit a FOIA request (FOIA request).
 

Public health agencies should notify FSIS as soon as possible about illness outbreaks potentially associated with FSIS-regulated products (including meat, poultry, and processed egg products) at FoodborneDiseaseReports@usda.gov.

If you think you are ill, see a physician. You can report a problem with FSIS-regulated products to the toll-free USDA Meat and Poultry Hotline at 1-888-MPHotline (1-888-674-6854) or report the complaint online. For more information visit: Report a Problem with Food.


Questions? AskFSIS

Short URL for this page: https://www.fsis.usda.gov/OutbreakResponse

Last Modified Feb 24, 2021