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Web Content Viewer (JSR 286)


Web Content Viewer (JSR 286)


Web Content Viewer (JSR 286)


Web Content Viewer (JSR 286)


Web Content Viewer (JSR 286)


Glossary - C

Archive Page. Archived files are provided for reference purposes only. This file was current when produced, but is no longer maintained and may now be outdated.


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Campylobacter is a bacterium that is commonly found in the intestinal tracts of cats, dogs, poultry, cattle, swine, rodents, monkeys, wild birds, and some humans. The bacteria pass through feces to cycle through the environment and are also in untreated water.  Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni), the strain associated with most reported human infections, may be present in the body without causing illness.

A diarrheal disease often caused by the type of bacteria known as Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) associated with poultry, raw milk, and water. There are an estimated 2.5 million cases annually in the United States with 200 to 730 deaths. Campylobacteriosis has been linked to Guillain-Barre syndrome (a disease which paralyzes limbs and breathing muscles) as well as Epstein-Barr, Cytomegalovirus, and other viruses. USDA has estimated that this disease costs the United States between $1.2 to $1.4 billion annually in medical costs, productivity losses, and residential care.

A receptacle generally having less than 10 gallon capacity (consumer or institutional sizes); also means to pack a product in a can or a wide-mouth glass container for processing, shipping or storage.

Boneless pork shoulder butts which are dry cured; not necessarily cooked.

A surgically unsexed male chicken, usually under eight months of age, that is tender-meated with soft, pliable, smooth-textured skin.

Captive Bolt
An instrument used to stun cattle prior to slaughter. The bolt is driven into the animal’s brain, rendering it unconscious.

All parts of any slaughtered livestock.

A membranous case for processed meat.

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)
The agency within the Food and Drug Administration responsible for developing and overseeing enforcement of food safety and quality regulations. CFSAN coordinates surveillance and compliance with FDA and other states’ surveillance and compliance programs. FDA's roughly 800 field inspectors (located administratively within FDA's Office of Regulatory Affairs)enforce CFSAN's food safety regulations at 53,000 processing facilities.

Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM)
An agency within the Food and Drug Administration that is responsible for assuring that all animal drugs, feeds (including pet foods), and veterinary devices are safe for animals, properly labeled, and produce no human health hazards when used in food-producing animals.

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention
An agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services that monitors and investigates food borne disease outbreaks and compiles baseline data against which to measure the success of changes in food safety programs.

The term “certified” implies that the USDA’s Food Safety and Inspection Service and the Agriculture Marketing Service have officially evaluated a meat product for class, grade, or other quality characteristics (e.g., “Certified Angus Beef”). When used under other circumstances, the term must be closely associated with the name of the organization responsible for the “certification” process, e.g., “XYZ Company’s Certified Beef.”

Chronic Wasting Disease
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of deer and elk. To date, this disease has been found only in cervids (members of the deer family) in North America. First recognized as a clinical "wasting" syndrome in 1967 in mule deer in a wildlife research facility in northern Colorado, it was identified as a TSE in 1978. CWD is typified by chronic weight loss leading to death. There is no known relationship between CWD and any other TSE of animals or people.

Chemical Preservative
Any chemical that, when added to a meat or meat food product, tends to prevent or retard deterioration thereof, but does not include common salt, sugars, vinegars, spices, or oils extracted from spices or substances added to meat and meat food products by exposure to wood smoke.

Chevon (FR)
Goat meat used for food.

An acceptable name to denote a short, usually plump meat food product, unsliced in casing.

Clostridium botulinum 
The name of a group of bacteria commonly found in soil. These rod-shaped organisms grow best in low oxygen conditions. The bacteria form spores which allow them to survive in a dormant state until exposed to conditions that can support their growth. Clostridium botulinum is the bacterium that produces the nerve toxin that causes botulism.

Cock or Rooster
A mature male chicken with coarse skin, toughened and darkened meat, and hardened breastbone tip.

Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)
The codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the Executive departments and agencies of the federal government. The Code is divided into 50 titles that represent broad areas subject to regulation. Most regulations directly related to agriculture are in Title 7. Each title is divided into chapters that usually bear the name of the issuing agency, followed by subdivisions into parts covering specific regulatory areas. Title 9, Chapter III covers the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

Codex Alimentarius Commission
A joint commission of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization, comprised of some 146 member countries, created in 1962 to ensure consumer food safety, establish fair practices in food trade, and promote the development of international food standards. The Commission drafts nonbinding standards for food additives, veterinary drugs, pesticide residues, and other substances that affect consumer food safety. It publishes these standards in a listing called the “Codex Alimentarius.”

Consumer Safety Officer
The Consumer Safety Officer (CSO), a professional position created by FSIS in 2001, serves as a representative of a district office within the agency. The CSO’s duties include focusing on in-plant inspection activities, serving on in-depth verification reviews, investigations, and other Agency reviews to assess the effectiveness of a plant’s food safety control systems. In addition, a key responsibility of the CSO will be to assist with activities associated with the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act (SBREFA) which supports in-plant food safety inspection activities and helps small and very small establishments identify resources for the design and implementation of HACCP plans, SSOPs, E. coli testing plans, and microbiological control strategies.

Continuous Inspection
USDA's meat and poultry inspection system is often called “continuous” because no animal destined for human food may be slaughtered or dressed unless an inspector is present to examine it before slaughter (antemortem inspection), and its carcass and parts after slaughter (postmortem inspection). In processing plants, as opposed to slaughter plants, inspectors need not be present at all times, but they do visit at least once daily. Processing inspection is also considered continuous.

Controlled Atmosphere Packaging (CAP)
Packaging method in which selected atmospheric concentrations of gases are maintained throughout storage in order to extend product shelf life. Gas may either be evacuated or introduced to achieve the desired atmosphere. Normally used for fruits and vegetables, not meat products.

Corned Beef
Corning is a form of curing one of the several less-tender cuts of beef like the brisket, rump or round. It has nothing to do with corn. The name comes from Anglo-Saxon times before refrigeration. In those days, the meat was dry-cured in coarse “corns” of salt. Pellets of salt, some the size of kernels of corn, were rubbed into the beef to keep it from spoiling and to preserve it. Today, brining has replaced the dry salt cure, but the name “corned beef” is still used, rather than “brined” or “pickled” beef. Commonly used spices that give corned beef its distinctive flavor are peppercorns and bay leaf.

(Rock) Cornish Game Hen
A Rock Cornish game hen or Cornish game hen is a young immature chicken (usually five to six weeks of age) weighing not more than two pounds ready-to-cook weight, which was prepared from a Cornish chicken or the progeny of a Cornish chicken crossed with another breed of chicken.

(Rock) Cornish Fryer, Roaster, or Hen
A Rock Cornish fryer, roaster, or hen is the progeny of a cross between a purebred Cornish and a purebred Rock chicken, without regard to the weight of the carcass involved; however, the term “fryer,” “roaster,” or “hen” shall apply only if the carcasses are from birds with ages and characteristics of a “broiler or fryer” or “roaster or roasting chicken.”

Cottage Ham
A ham made from the shoulder butt end.

Country Ham
Uncooked, cured, dried, smoked-or-unsmoked meat products made from a single piece of meat from the hind leg of a hog or from a single piece of meat from a pork shoulder.

Country-of-origin Labeling
Under Section 304 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, most products entering the United States must be clearly marked so that the “ultimate purchaser” can identify the country of origin. Imported meat products are subject to this requirement: imported carcasses and parts of carcasses must be labeled, and individual retail (consumer-ready) packages also must be labeled. Imported carcasses or parts generally go to U.S. plants for further processing. The labeling policy considers these plants as the “ultimate purchasers.” Therefore, any products these plants make from the imported meat (for example, ground beef patties made in the United States from beef that originated in Canada or elsewhere) do not have to bear country-of-origin labels. A number of other agricultural articles are exempt from the basic country-of-origin labeling requirements: eggs, livestock and other animals, live or dead; and other “natural products” such as fruits, vegetables, nuts and berries. (However, the outermost containers used to bring these articles into the United States must indicate the country of origin.) On May 13, 2002, President Bush signed into law the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002, which requires beef, lamb, pork, farm-raised fish, wild fish, perishable agricultural commodities, and peanuts to bear Country-of-origin labeling at the point of retail sale.

Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease (CJD)
A sporadic and rare, but fatal human disease that usually strikes people over 65. It occurs worldwide at an estimated rate of one case per million population. About 10-15% of CJD cases are inherited. A small number of cases occurred as the result of various medical treatments or procedures which inadvertently transferred the CJD agent. In March 1996, the British government announced a possible link between bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and CJD. The announcement was prompted by the discovery of several atypical cases of CJD in Great Britain.

Critical Control Point
An operation (practice, procedure, process, or location) at or by which preventive or control measures can be exercised that will eliminate, prevent, or minimize one or more hazards. Critical control points are fundamental to Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) systems.

The transfer of harmful substances or disease-causing microorganisms to food by hands, food-contact surfaces, sponges, cloth towels and utensils that touch raw food, are not cleaned, and then touch ready-to-eat foods. Cross contamination can also occur when raw food touches or drips onto cooked or ready-to-eat foods. 

A chemical agent placed in or on meat or poultry for use in preservation, flavor, or color.

Curing is the addition of salt, sodium nitrate (or saltpeter), nitrites and sometimes sugars, seasonings, phosphates and ascorbates to pork for preservation, color development and flavor enhancement.

Custom Exempt
Custom exempt establishments are slaughter and processing establishments which are not subject to the routine inspection requirements of the Federal Meat Inspection Act and Poultry Products Inspection Act, provided the specified operations meet the exemption requirements of Section 23 of the FMIA and section 15 of the PIA.

Cutting Up
Any division of any carcass or part thereof, except that the trimming of carcasses or parts thereof to remove surface contaminants is not considered as cutting up.


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Last Modified Aug 11, 2014