Rigid or flexible containers from which substantially all air has been removed before sealing. Carbon dioxide or nitrogen may be introduced into the container. This process prolongs shelf life, preserves the flavors and retards bacterial growth.
Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD)
vCJD is a variant of the most commonly identified TSE in humans, classic (sporadic) Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD). Scientific evidence supports a causal relationship between BSE outbreaks in Europe and vCJD. The disease vCJD is most likely caused by the ingestion of products contaminated with the BSE agent. There has never been a case of vCJD that did not have a history of exposure within a country where BSE was occurring. Patients with vCJD have primarily been younger and exhibit clinical signs of the disease longer than patients with classic CJD.
The meat from a calf or young beef animal. Male dairy calves are used in the veal industry. Dairy cows must give birth to continue producing milk, but male dairy calves are of little or no value to the dairy farmer. A small percentage are raised to maturity and used for breeding.
A calf is a young bovine of either sex that has not reached puberty (up to about nine months of age), and has a maximum live weight of 750 pounds.
About fifteen percent of veal calves are marketed up to three weeks of age or at a weight of 150 pounds. These are called Bob Calves.
The majority of veal calves are special-fed. A veal calf is raised until about 16 to 18 weeks of age, weighing up to 450 pounds. They are raised in specially designed facilities where they can be cared for and monitored. Special, milk fed, and formula fed are the names given to nutritionally balanced milk or soy based diets fed to calves. These diets contain iron and 40 other essential nutrients, including amino acids, carbohydrates, fats, minerals and vitamins.
The use of methods, procedures, or tests by supervisors, designated personnel, or regulators to determine if the food safety system based on the HACCP principles is working to control identified hazards or if modifications need to be made.
The process of ensuring that each successive stage in the production, processing, and marketing of a product is appropriately managed and interrelated to the next, so that decisions about what to produce, and how much, are communicated as efficiently as possible from the consumer to the producer. Agricultural economists believe that vertical coordination of markets is particularly important in the food industry because of its complexity, the large number of firms that participate in one or more stages, and the relative perishability of the products involved. Vertical integration is a type of vertical coordination, but the latter does not necessarily require that a single organization own or control all of the stages. For example, the use of contracts and marketing agreements between buyers and sellers, and the availability of timely, accurate price and other market information are methods for achieving vertical coordination.
The integrating of successive stages of the production and marketing functions under the ownership or control of a single management organization. For example, much of the broiler industry is highly vertically integrated in that processing companies own or control the activities from production and hatching of eggs, through the growth and feeding of the chickens, to slaughter, processing, and wholesale marketing.
Vaccines, antigens, antitoxins and other preparations made from living organisms (or genetically engineered) and intended for use in diagnosing, treating, or immunizing animals. Unlike some pharmaceutical products, such as antibiotics, most biologics leave no residues in animals. Veterinary biologics are regulated by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, which licenses the facilities that produce them and conducts a program to ensure that animal vaccines and other veterinary biologics are safe, pure, potent, and effective.
The mutual recognition by two or more countries that each partys safety and sanitation standards for animal products, even where not identical, provide an equivalent level of protection to public and animal health. Aimed at facilitating trade, the practical effect of veterinary equivalency is that each countrys individual products and facilities will not have to submit to the separate standards of importing countries and to cumbersome and costly inspections by foreign reviewers. Veterinary equivalency has been a contentious issue for the United States and European Union (EU); the two parties in 1997 agreed in principle to an agreement recognizing each others standards.
Viscus (Plural, viscera)
An internal organ of a human or animal.
Under the authority of the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946, as amended (7 U.S.C. 1621 et seq.), FSIS provides voluntary inspection of exotic animal products. Voluntary inspection is conducted by USDA inspectors who must have knowledge about each particular species they inspect. Under the FSIS voluntary inspection program, establishments are required to pay a fee for inspection services.