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View Glossary terms beginning with:

Glossary
Fabricated Steak
Fabricated beef steaks, veal steaks, beef and veal steaks, or veal and beef steaks, and similar products, such as those labeled “Beef Steak, Chopped, Shaped, Frozen,” “Minute Steak, Formed, Wafer Sliced, Frozen,” “Veal Steaks, Beef Added, Chopped-Molded-Cubed-Fro-Flavoring” shall be prepared by comminuting and forming the product from fresh and/or frozen meat, with or without added fat, of the species indicated on the label. Such products shall not contain more than 30 percent fat and shall not contain added water, binders or extenders.

Farm Bill
A phrase that refers to a multi-year, multi-commodity federal support law. It usually amends some and suspends many provisions of permanent law, reauthorizes, amends, or repeals provisions of preceding temporary agricultural acts, and puts forth new policy provisions for a limited time into the future. Beginning in 1973, farms bills have included titles on commodity programs, trade, rural development, farm credit, conservation, agricultural research, food and nutrition programs, marketing, etc. These are referred to as omnibus farm bills. The following is a generally agreed chronological list of farm bills: (1) Food and Agriculture Act of 1965, P.L. 89-321; (2) Agricultural Act of 1970, P.L. 91-524; (3) Agriculture and Consumer Protection Act of 1973, P.L. 93-86; (4) Food and Agriculture Act of 1977, P.L. 95-113; (5) Agriculture and Food Act of 1981, P.L. 97-98; (6) Food Security Act of 1985, P.L. 99-198; (7) Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990, P.L. 101-624; (8) Federal Agricultural Improvement and Reform Act of 1996, P.L. 104-127, Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002.

Farm-to-Table Continuum
A multi-step journey that food travels before it is consumed.

Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) of 1938
P.L. 75-717 (June 25, 1938) is the basic authority intended to ensure that foods are pure and wholesome, safe to eat, and produced under sanitary conditions; that drugs and devices are safe and effective for their intended uses; that cosmetics are safe and made from appropriate ingredients; and that all labeling and packaging is truthful, informative, and not deceptive. The Food and Drug Administration is primarily responsible for enforcing the FFDCA, although USDA also has some enforcement responsibility. The Environmental Protection Agency establishes limits for concentrations of pesticide residues on food under this Act.

Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906 (FMIA)
Enacted June 30, 1906, as chapter 3913, 34 Stat. 674, and substantially amended by the Wholesome Meat Act 1967 (P.L. 90-201), requires USDA to inspect all cattle, sheep, swine, goats, and horses when slaughtered and processed into products for human consumption. The primary goals of the law are to prevent adulterated or misbranded livestock and products from being sold as food, and to ensure that meat and meat products are slaughtered and processed under sanitary conditions. These requirements apply to animals and their products produced and sold within states as well as to imports, which must be inspected under equivalent foreign standards. The Food and Drug Administration is responsible for all meats considered “exotic” at this time, including venison and buffalo.

Federal Register
A federal document containing current Presidential orders or directives, agency regulations, proposed agency rules, notices and other documents that are required by statute to be published for wide public distribution. The Federal Register is published each federal working day. USDA publishes its rules, notices and other documents in the Federal Register. Final regulations are organized by agency and programs in the Code of Federal Regulations.

Fight Bac!® Campaign
A national public education project by the Partnership for Food Safety Education, which bring together industry, government, and consumer groups to educate Americans about the importance of using safe food-handling practices. The campaign focuses on the “4 Cs” of food safety the four simple steps people can take to fight foodborne bacteria and reduce the risk of foodborne illness. The four simple steps are Clean, Cook, Separate, and Chill.

Flash Pasteurization
A pasteurization process which involves a high temperature, short-time treatment in which pourable products, such as juices, are heated for three to 15 seconds to a temperature that destroys harmful micro-organisms.

Food Additive
Any substance or mixture of substances other than the basic foodstuff present in a food as a result of any phase of production, processing, packaging, storage, transport or handling. USDA allows food additives in meat, poultry and egg products only after they have received Food and Drug Administration safety approval. Food additives are regulated under the authority of the Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act and are subject to the Delaney Clause.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
A UN organization, founded in 1945, that collects and disseminates information about world agriculture. FAO also provides technical assistance to developing countries in agricultural production and distribution, food processing, nutrition, fisheries, and forestry.

Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
An agency within the Public Health Service of the Department of Health and Human Services. FDA is a public health agency, charged with protecting consumers by enforcing the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and several related public health laws. Importantly for agriculture, a major FDA mission is to protect the safety and wholesomeness of food. In this regard, its scientists test samples to see if any substances, such as pesticide residues, are present in unacceptable amounts, it sets food labeling standards, and it sees that medicated feeds and other drugs given to animals raised for food are not threatening to the consumer’s health.

Food and Nutrition Service (FNS)
The USDA agency whose goals are to provide needy people with access to a more nutritious diet, to improve the eating habits of the nation’s children, and to stabilize farm prices through the distribution of surplus foods. It administers 15 domestic food assistance programs (including the food stamp program, child nutrition programs [e.g., school feeding programs], and the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children [WIC]). FNS works in partnership with the states and reimburses most of the administrative costs the states incur for carrying out local program administration.

Food Biosecurity Action Team (F-BAT)
The USDA Under Secretary for Food Safety formed the Food Biosecurity Action Team (F-BAT) to coordinate and facilitate all activities pertaining to biosecurity, countering terrorism, and emergency preparedness with FSIS. F-BAT also serves as FSIS’ voice with other governmental agencies and internal and external constituents on biosecurity issues.

Food Code
The code, published by the Food and Drug Administration, consists of model requirements for safeguarding public health that may be adopted and used by various parts of local, state, and federal governments, if desired. It is used by officials who have compliance responsibilities for food service, retail food stores, or food vending operations.

Food Isolate
A microorganism that is derived from food for the purpose of identifying or characterizing it.

Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS)
The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is the public health agency in the U.S. Department of Agriculture responsible for ensuring that the nation’s commercial supply of meat, poultry, and egg products is safe, wholesome, and correctly labeled and packaged, as required by the Federal Meat Inspection Act, the Poultry Products Inspection Act, and the Egg Products Inspection Act.

The Food Safety Educator
The Food Safety Educator is a free quarterly newsletter published by FSIS’ Food Safety Education Staff that reports on new food safety educational programs and materials as well as emerging science concerning food safety risks.

(National) Food Safety Initiative
A 1997 interagency initiative among the Food and Drug Administration, Center for Disease Control, Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Agriculture to implement a series of coordinated efforts to reduce the annual incidence of foodborne illness and resultant economic losses to consumers and industry by enhancing the safety of the U.S. food supply.

Food Security
Access by all people at all times to enough food for an active healthy life. Food security at a minimum includes the ready availability of nutritionally adequate and safe food, and an assured ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways, that is, without having to resort to emergency food supplies, scavenging, stealing, or other coping strategies. Causes of food insecurity may include poverty, civil conflict, governmental corruption, environmental degradation, and natural disasters.

Food Thermometer
A special device that measures the internal temperature of cooked foods, such as meat, poultry, and any combination dishes to ensure that a safe food temperature is reached.

Food Threat Preparedness Network
See PrepNet.

Foodborne Illnesses
Illnesses caused by pathogens that enter the human body through foods.

Foodborne Outbreak
The occurrence of two or more people experiencing the same illness after eating the same food.

Foodborne Pathogens
Disease-causing microorganisms found in food, usually bacteria, fungi, parasites, protozoans, and viruses. The top ten pathogens are: Salmonella; Staphylococcus Aureus; Campylobacter jejuni; Yersinia enerocolitica; Listeria monocytogenes; Vibro cholerae non-01; Vibrio Parahemolyticus; Bacillus cereus; Escherichia coli - enteropathogenic ; and Shigella. Many of these pathogens may be found in contaminated meat, poultry, shell eggs, dairy products, and seafood.

Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD)
a highly contagious viral disease of cattle and swine, as well as sheep, goats, deer, and other cloven-hoofed ruminants. Although rarely transmissible to humans, FMD is devastating to livestock and has critical economic consequences with potentially severe losses in the production and marketing of meat and milk.

FoodNet
The Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) is the principal foodborne disease component of CDC's Emerging Infections Program (EIP). FoodNet is a collaborative project of the CDC, nine EIP sites (California, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, New York, Maryland, Minnesota, Oregon and Tennessee), the USDA, and the FDA. The project consists of active surveillance for foodborne diseases and related epidemiologic studies designed to help public health officials better understand the epidemiology of foodborne diseases in the United States. FoodNet provides a network for responding to new and emerging foodborne diseases of national importance, monitoring the burden of foodborne diseases, and identifying the sources of specific foodborne diseases.

Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS)
USDA agency that administers agricultural export and food aid programs. FAS is also responsible for formulating agricultural trade policy, negotiating to reduce foreign agricultural trade barriers, and carrying out programs of international cooperation and technical assistance. The agency maintains a global network of agricultural officers (counselors and attaches) as well as a Washington-based staff to analyze and disseminate information on world agricultural trade policy interests of U.S. producers in multilateral forums.

Frankfurters (a.k.a., hot dogs, wieners, or bologna)
Cooked and/or smoked sausages prepared according to the Federal standards of identity. Federal standards of identity describe the requirements for processors to follow in formulating and marketing meat, poultry, and egg products produced in the United States for sale in this country and in foreign commerce. The standard also requires that they be comminuted (reduced to minute particles), semisolid products made from one or more kinds of raw skeletal muscle from livestock (like beef or pork)and may contain poultry meat. Smoking and curing ingredients contribute to flavor, color, and preservation of the product. They are link-shaped and come in all sizes -- short, long, thin, and chubby.

Free Range or Free Roaming
Livestock or poultry has been allowed access to the outside.

Fresh (Poultry)
Poultry whose internal temperature has never been below 26°F.

Fresh Ham
The uncured leg of pork. Since the meat is not cured or smoked, it has the flavor of a fresh pork loin roast or pork chops. Its raw color is pinkish red and after cooking, greyish white.

Fryer-Roaster Turkey
A young immature turkey, usually under 16 weeks of age, of either sex, that is tender-meated with soft, pliable, smooth-textured skin, and flexible breastbone cartilage.

Fully Cooked
Fully cooked product needs no further cooking. The product is fully cooked in the plant, and it can be reheated or eaten directly from the package. Also known as ready-to-eat.

Further Processing
Smoking, cooking, canning, curing, refining, or rendering in an official establishment of product previously prepared in official establishments.
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Last Modified May 24, 2013