E. coli O157:H7 (
Escherichia Coli O157:H7)
A bacterium that lives harmlessly in the intestines of animals such as cattle, reptiles, and birds. However, in humans the bacterium, which can be transmitted by foods, animal contact, and drinking water, can cause bloody diarrhea, and also lead to hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), a life threatening disease. Although other generic strains of
E. coli are thought to be harmless to humans, the O157:H7 strain is particularly virulent and dangerous. USDA began an
E. coli O157:H7 testing plan in 1994. As part of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) rule,all meat and poultry slaughter plants are required to test carcasses regularly for generic
E. coli in order to verify that their sanitary systems are effectively controlling fecal contamination.
Economic Research Service (ERS)
The Economic Research Service (ERS) is the main source of economic information and research from the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The mission of ERS is to inform and enhance public and private decision making on economic and policy issues related to agriculture, food, natural resources, and rural development. To accomplish this mission, highly trained economists and social scientists develop and distribute a broad range of economic and other social science information and analyses.
Intended for use as human food.
Eggs that are removed from their shells for processing. The processing of egg products includes breaking eggs, filtering, mixing, stabilizing, blending, pasteurizing, cooling, freezing or drying, and packaging. Egg products include whole eggs, whites, yolks and various blends with or without non-egg ingredients that are processed and pasteurized and may be available in liquid, frozen, and dried forms. FSIS is responsible for inspecting egg products and enforcing the Egg Products Inspection Act (EPIA).
Egg Products Inspection Act (EPIA)
The Egg Products Inspection Act (EPIA), passed by Congress in 1970, provides for the mandatory continuous inspection of the processing of liquid, frozen, and dried egg products.
A substance added to products, such as meat spreads, to prevent separation of product components to ensure consistency. Examples of these types of additives include lecithin, and mono- and diglycerides.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
The Federal Agency whose mission is to protect human health and to safeguard the natural environment &151; air, water, and land &151; upon which life depends. EPA provides leadership in the nation's environmental science, research, education and assessment efforts. EPA works closely with other federal agencies, state and local governments, and Indian tribes to develop and enforce regulations under existing environmental laws. EPA is responsible for researching and setting national standards for a variety of environmental programs and delegates to states and tribes responsibility for issuing permits, and monitoring and enforcing compliance.
Study of the distribution of disease, or other health-related conditions and events in human or animal populations, in order to identify health problems and possible causes.
A term applied by the Uruguay Round Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Measures. WTO Member countries shall accord acceptance to the SPS measures of other countries (even if those measures differ from their own or from those used by other Member countries trading in the same product) if the exporting country demonstrates to the importing country that its measures achieve the importers appropriate level of sanitary and phytosanitary protection.
Establishment or Official Establishment
Any slaughtering, cutting, boning, meat canning, curing, smoking, salting, packing, rendering, or similar facility at which inspection is maintained under regulations of the Federal Meat Inspection Act, Poultry Products Inspection Act, Egg Products Inspection Act, and the Humane Methods of Slaughter Act.
Exotic Newcastle Disease
A contagious and fatal viral disease affecting all species of birds. Exotic Newcastle disease is one of the most infectious diseases of poultry in the world. A death rate of almost 100 percent can occur in unvaccinated poultry flocks.
Any animal used in any research investigation involving the feeding or other administration of, or subjection to, an experimental biological product, drug, or chemical or any nonexperimental biological product, drug, or chemical used in a manner for which it was not intended.