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FSIS Microbiological Testing Program for Salmonella in Pasteurized Egg Products, Calendar Years 1995–2014

The Egg Products Inspection Act (EPIA) was passed in 1970 to provide mandatory inspection of the processing of liquid, frozen, and dried egg products. The EPIA and the associated regulations (7 CFR Part 59) laid out the requirements to assure that eggs and egg products are wholesome and not adulterated, as well as properly labeled and packaged. The Agricultural Marketing Service's (AMS) Poultry Division administered mandatory inspection of processed egg products under the EPIA. On May 28, 1995, AMS transferred the responsibility for regulating pasteurized liquid, frozen, or dried egg products to the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS).

Responsibilities assumed by FSIS include:

  • performance of mandatory inspection of processed egg products,
  • oversight of the residue monitoring program for processed egg products,
  • supervision of a Salmonella surveillance recognized laboratory program,
  • oversight of the microbiological monitoring program, and
  • review and approval of processed egg products labels.

Currently, processed egg products are broken into seven product categories—four liquid and three dried. Each processed egg product category has a different time and temperature pasteurization process requirement based upon the composition of the egg product. Each month, inspectors collect one egg sample per process from each plant that produces egg products. FSIS Field Service Laboratories analyze the samples for the presence of Salmonella. Thus, inspectors could sample an egg product production plant as many as seven times per month depending on the number of plant production processes occurring during the month.

Summary of Salmonella percent positives in pasteurized egg products 

1995
  • FSIS began testing pasteurized egg products for Salmonella. The Salmonella percent positive was 1.63%.
1996
  • During the second year of the testing program, the Salmonella percent positive was 0.62%. Comparing the results of the first two years, there is a considerable decrease (1.01, or 62%) in Salmonella percent positives.
1997 to 2007
  • During this ten-year period, there were moderate fluctuations in the Salmonella percent positives. FSIS detected the highest percent positive in 1999 at 0.82% and the lowest percent positive in 2007 at 0.07%.
2008 to 2014
  • Beginning January 2008, FSIS began reporting microbiological results by collection date as opposed to analysis end date to align FSIS activities with those of their federal partners and to standardize reporting of yearly and quarterly results from the various microbiological verification programs.
  • The results from 2008 onward cannot be compared with results from previous years because of the change in reporting, therefore, for ease of viewing and comparison, the tables and figures have been separated based on specific calendar year time ranges.
  • The Salmonella percent positive from 2008 to 2014 was 0.19% and has shown a downward trend throughout those years.

Figures and Tables

The tables have been divided from 1995 to 1999, from 2000 to 2007, and from 2008 to 2014 because beginning in January 2008, FSIS began reporting microbiological results by collection date as opposed to analysis end date.

Table 1a shows the results for the seven egg product categories by year from 1995 through 1999, Table 1b shows the results by year from 2000 through 2007 and Table 1c shows the results by year from 2008 through 2013 and Table 1d shows the total for all the years combined. The twenty years of study results illustrates the noticeable differences in the percent of positive samples among the categories.

Figure 1a shows the Salmonella percent positives in pasteurized egg products from 1995 to 2014 (0.35%), which is the time period FSIS has managed the program.  The Salmonella percent positives (0.19%) observed from 2008 through 2014 are illustrated in Figure 1b.  Figure 1b also demonstrates a downward trend in percent positives from 2008 to 2014.  The results presented represent the total Salmonella percent positives of all seven egg product categories per calendar year.

Since the beginning of sample collection, FSIS has identified 109 positive pasteurized egg products samples. FSIS obtained serotype information on 94 of these positive isolates. The serotype data from 1995 through 1999 are presented in Table 2a, from 2000 through 2007 in Table 2b, and from 2008 through 2014 in Table 2c and the total sum from all the years from 1995 through 2014 are presented in Table 2d with Heidelberg and Enteritidis as the most common serotypes followed by Typhimurium (including Typhimurium Copenhagen) and Braenderup.

FSIS provides links to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) data on the serotypes isolated from human cases of salmonellosis. The reader can easily access the data on both the serotypes found in pasteurized egg products and those causing human illness on the following websites:

Contact Information

Food Safety and Inspection Service
http://askfsis.custhelp.com/


Table 1a.  Percent Positive (%) of Salmonella in Pasteurized Egg Products CY 1995-1999 (Liquid, Frozen or Dried Egg Products)

Year Egg Whites(1) Whole Eggs(2) or Yolks(2) Whole Eggs with Added Yolks or Whole Egg Blends Whole Eggs(3) or Yolks(3) Dried Yellow Egg Products Spray Dried Egg Whites(1) Pan Dried Egg Whites Summary by Year
1995 1.35
(1/74)(4)
1.05
(1/95)
2.90
(2/69)
2.67
(2/75)
0.00
(0/27)
0.00
(0/26)
0.00
(0/2)
1.63
(6/368)
1996 0.23
(1/433)
0.51
(3/593)
0.37
(1/270)
1.30
(6/462)
0.65
(1/155)
0.59
(1/170)
0.00
(0/11)
0.62
(13/2,094)
1997 0.24
(1/412)
0.71
(4/564)
0.40
(1/249)
1.11
(5/449)
0.68
(1/147)
0.00
(0/164)
0.00
(0/13)
0.60
(12/1,998)
1998 0.55
(2/366)
0.57
(3/529)
0.91
(2/220)
0.51
(2/394)
0.70
(1/142)
0.00
(0/150)
0.00
(0/11)
0.55
(10/1,812)
1999 1.45
(5/345)
0.40
(2/504)
0.00
(0/196)
1.29
(5/389)
1.49
(2/134)
0.00
(0/130)
0.00
(0/12)
0.82
(14/1,710)

(1) With or without added ingredients.
(2) With less than 2% added ingredients other than salt or sugar.
(3) With more than 2% salt or sugar added.
(4) (Number positive/number analyzed x 100) in 100 grams of tested product.

Table 1b.  Percent Positive (%) of Salmonella in Pasteurized Egg Products CY 2000-2007 (Liquid, Frozen or Dried Egg Products)

Year Egg Whites(1) Whole Eggs(2) or Yolks(2) Whole Eggs with Added Yolks or Whole Egg Blends Whole Eggs(3) or Yolks(3) Dried Yellow Egg Products Spray Dried Egg Whites(1) Pan Dried Egg Whites Summary by Year
2000 1.39
(5/360)(4)
0.00
(0/534)
0.00
(0/207)
0.27
(1/370)
0.00
(0/154)
0.00
(0/124)
0.00
(0/12)
0.34
(6/1,761)
2001 1.17
(4/342)
0.21
(1/486)
0.00
(0/194)
0.00
(0/366)
0.74
(1/136)
0.00
(0/121)
0.00
(0/11)
0.36
(6/1,656)
2002 0.85
(3/355)
0.00
(0/480)
0.00
(0/183)
0.29
(1/344)
2.08
(3/144)
0.00
(0/129)
0.00
(0/12)
0.43
(7/1,647)
2003 0.00
(0/346)
0.00
(0/458)
0.00
(0/180)
0.93
(3/324)
1.61
(2/124)
0.00
(0/116)
0.00
(0/12)
0.32
(5/1,560)
2004 0.61
(2/330)
0.22
(1/450)
0.00
(0/169)
0.85
(3/352)
0.00
(0/124)
0.00
(0/122)
0.00
(0/11)
0.39
(6/1,558)
2005 0.00
(0/365)
0.00
(0/433)
0.55
(1/182)
0.28
(1/359)
0.00
(0/129)
0.00
(0/129)
0.00
(0/13)
0.12
(2/1,610)
2006 0.30
(1/331)
0.24
(1/421)
0.00
(0/169)
0.00
(0/327)
0.00
(0/122)
0.00
(0/121)
0.00
(0/10)
0.13
(2/1,501)
2007 0.30
(1/332)
0.00
(0/419)
0.00
(0/154)
0.00
(0/301)
0.00
(0/109)
0.00
(0/94)
0.00
(0/12)
0.07
(1/1,421)

(1) With or without added ingredients.
(2) With less than 2% added ingredients other than salt or sugar.
(3) With more than 2% salt or sugar added.
(4) (Number positive/number analyzed x 100) in 100 grams of tested product.

Table 1c.  Percent Positive (%) of Salmonella in Pasteurized Egg Products CY 2008-2014* (Liquid, Frozen or Dried Egg Products)

Year Egg Whites(1) Whole Eggs(2) or Yolks(2) Whole Eggs with Added Yolks or Whole Egg Blends Whole Eggs(3) or Yolks(3) Dried Yellow Egg Products Spray Dried Egg Whites(1) Pan Dried Egg Whites Summary by Year
2008 0.29
(1/342)(4)
0.00
(2/444)
0.00
(0/164)
0.29
(1/339)
0.00
(0/108)
1.01
(1/99)
0.00
(0/10)
0.33
(5/1506)
2009 0.32
(1/313)
0.00
(0/430)
0.00
(0/149)
0.62
(2/325)
0.00
(0/111)
0.00
(0/102)
0.00
(0/11)
0.21
(3/1441)
2010 0.00
(0/310)
0.24
(1/424)
0.00
(0/150)
0.33
(1/302)
0.00
(0/122)
0.00
(0/111)
0.00
(0/10)
0.14
(2/1429)
2011 0.66
(2/301)
0.24
(1/423)
0.00
(0/158)
0.00
(0/284)
0.79
(1/126)
0.00
(0/107)
0.00
(0/10)
0.28
(4/1409)
2012 0.59
(2/339)
0.23
(1/436)
0.00
(0/165)
0.00
(0/325)
0.00
(0/146)
0.00
(0/120)
0.00
(0/13)
0.19
(3/1544)
2013 0.62
(2/321)
0.00
(0/413)
0.00
(0/150)
0.00
(0/314)
0.00
(0/153)
0.00
(0/113)
0.00
(0/11)
0.14
(2/1475)
2014 0.00
(0/263)
0.00
(0/408)
0.00
(0/185)
0.00
(0/335)
0.00
(0/158)
0.00
(0/96)
0.00
(0/12)
0.00
(0/1457)

*Beginning with CY2008, annual microbiological results are reported by sample collection date as opposed to analysis end date to align the FSIS activities with those of their federal partners and to standardize reporting of yearly and quarterly results from the various microbiological verification programs.  The results from 2008 onward cannot be compared with results from previous years because of the change in reporting.
Source: FSIS internal M2K database, CY 2010-2014.
(1) With or without added ingredients.
(2) With less than 2% added ingredients other than salt or sugar.
(3) With more than 2% salt or sugar added.
(4) (Number positive/number analyzed x 100) in 100 grams of tested product.

Table 1d.  Percent Positive (%) of Salmonella in Pasteurized Egg Products CY 1995-2014*  (Liquid, Frozen or Dried Egg Products)

Year Egg Whites(1) Whole Eggs(2) or Yolks(2) Whole Eggs with Added Yolks or Whole Egg Blends Whole Eggs(3) or Yolks(3) Dried Yellow Egg Products Spray Dried Egg Whites(1) Pan Dried Egg Whites Total
1995-2014 0.52
(34/6580)(4)
0.23
(21/8944)
0.20
(7/3563)
0.49
(33/6736)
0.47
(12/2571)
0.09
(2/2344)
0.00
(0/219)
0.35
(109/30957)

*Beginning with CY2008, annual microbiological results are reported by sample collection date as opposed to analysis end date to align the FSIS activities with those of their federal partners and to standardize reporting of yearly and quarterly results from the various microbiological verification programs.  The results from 2008 onward cannot be compared with results from previous years because of the change in reporting.
Source: FSIS internal M2K database, CY 2010-2014.
(1) With or without added ingredients.
(2) With less than 2% added ingredients other than salt or sugar.
(3) With more than 2% salt or sugar added.
(4) (Number positive/number analyzed x 100) in 100 grams of tested product.


Figures

Figure 1a shows the Salmonella percent positives in pasteurized egg products from 1995 to 2014 (0.35%), which is the time period FSIS has managed the program.

The Salmonella percent positives (0.19%) observed from 2008 through 2014 are illustrated in Figure 1b.  Figure 1b also demonstrates a downward trend in percent positives from 2008 to 2014.


Table 2a. Salmonella in Pasteurized Egg Products Sampling Program: Serotypes, CY 1995-1999

Year 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Totals
Total Samples Tested 368 2,094 1,998 1,812 1,710 7,982
Total Samples Positive for Salmonella 6 13 12 10 14 55
Total Salmonella Serotyped 5 11 7 8 13 44
Serotype Name
Heidelberg - 1 1 1 5 8
Enteritidis - 3 2 1 3 9
Typhimurium# 5 2 - 1 - 8
Braenderup - 1 1 3 1 6
Cerro - - - - 1 1
Mbandaka - - - - - 0
Give - 2 - 1 - 3
Montevideo - - 1 - 1 2
Kentucky - - - - 1 1
Thompson - - - - - 0
Untypable - 1 - - - 1
I 4,[5],12:i: - - - - - - 0
8,20:-:z6 - - - - - 0
Agona - - 1 - - 1
Anatum - - - 1 - 1
Hadar - - 1 - - 1
Infantis - 1 - - - 1
Ohio - - - - 1 1
Oranienburg - - - - - 0

#Typhimurium includes var. 5- (Formerly var. Copenhagen)

Note: For information on the most commonly identified serotypes causing human infection in the United States see:
http://www.cdc.gov/ncezid/dfwed/pdfs/salmonella-annual-report-2012-508c.pdf 
Appendix:
http://www.cdc.gov/ncezid/dfwed/pdfs/salmonella-annual-report-appendices-2012-508c.pdf

Table 2b. Salmonella in Pasteurized Egg Products Sampling Program: Serotypes, CY 2000-2007

Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Totals
Total Samples Tested 1,761 1,656 1,647 1,560 1,558 1,610 1,501 1,421 12,714
Total Samples Positive for Salmonella 6 6 7 5 6 2 2 1 35
Total Salmonella Serotyped 4 5 7 4 6 2 2 1 31
Serotype Name
Heidelberg 1 3 1 1 2 1 - - 9
Enteritidis - 2 - 1 1 1 2 - 7
Typhimurium# 1 - - - 1 - - - 2
Braenderup - - 1 - - - - - 1
Cerro 2 - - - 1 - - - 3
Mbandaka - - 1 2 1 - - - 4
Give - - - - - - - - 0
Montevideo - - 1 - - - - - 1
Kentucky - - 1 - - - - - 1
Thompson - - 1 - - - - 1 2
Untypable - - - - - - - - 0
I 4,[5],12:i: - - - - - - - - - 0
8,20:-:z6 - - - - - - - - 0
Agona - - - - - - - - 0
Anatum - - - - - - - - 0
Hadar - - - - - - - - 0
Infantis - - - - - - - - 0
Ohio - - - - - - - - 0
Oranienburg - - 1 - - - - - 1

#Typhimurium includes var. 5- (Formerly var. Copenhagen)

Note: For information on the most commonly identified serotypes causing human infection in the United States see:
http://www.cdc.gov/ncezid/dfwed/pdfs/salmonella-annual-report-2012-508c.pdf 
Appendix:
http://www.cdc.gov/ncezid/dfwed/pdfs/salmonella-annual-report-appendices-2012-508c.pdf

Table 2c. Salmonella in Pasteurized Egg Products Testing Program: Serotypes, CY 2008-2014

Year 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Totals
Total Samples Tested 1,506 1,441 1,429 1,409 1,544 1,475 1,457 10,261
Total Samples Positive for Salmonella 5 3 2 4 3 2 0 19
Total Salmonella Serotyped 5 3 2 4 3 2 0 19
Serotype Name
Heidelberg 1 1 - 1 2 2 - 7
Enteritidis 1 1 1 - - - - 3
Typhimurium# - - - - - - - 0
Braenderup - - 1 1 1 - - 3
Cerro 1 - - - - - - 1
Mbandaka - - - - - - - 0
Give - - - - - - - 0
Montevideo - - - - - - - 0
Kentucky - - - - - - - 0
Thompson - - - 1 - - - 1
Untypable 1 - - - - - - 1
I 4,[5],12:i: - - 1 - - - - - 1
8,20:-:z6 1 - - - - - - 1
Agona - - - - - - - 0
Anatum - - - - - - - 0
Hadar - - - - - - - 0
Infantis - - - 1 - - - 1
Ohio - - - - - - - 0
Oranienburg - - - - - - - 0

*Beginning with CY2008 all yearly and quarterly microbiological sample results will be posted according to the date the sample was collected.  Prior to CY2008 yearly posting of microbiological data results was based upon the sample analysis completion date.  For this reason, data from CY2008 cannot be directly compared to CY2007 data and prior years' data.
Source: FSIS internal M2K database, CY 2010-2014.

#Typhimurium includes var. 5- (Formerly var. Copenhagen)

Note: For information on the most commonly identified serotypes causing human infection in the United States see:
http://www.cdc.gov/ncezid/dfwed/pdfs/salmonella-annual-report-2012-508c.pdf 
Appendix:
http://www.cdc.gov/ncezid/dfwed/pdfs/salmonella-annual-report-appendices-2012-508c.pdf

Table 2d.  Salmonella in Pasteurized Egg Products Testing Program:  Serotypes, CY 1995-2014*

Year Totals
Total Samples Tested 30,957
Total Samples Positive for Salmonella 109
Total Salmonella Serotyped 94
Serotype Name
Heidelberg 24
Enteritidis 19
Typhimurium# 10
Braenderup 10
Cerro 5
Mbandaka 4
Give 3
Montevideo 3
Kentucky 2
Thompson 3
Untypable 2
I 4,[5],12:i: - 1
8,20:-:z6 1
Agona 1
Anatum 1
Hadar 1
Infantis 2
Ohio 1
Oranienburg 1

*Beginning with CY2008 all yearly and quarterly microbiological sample results will be posted according to the date the sample was collected.  Prior to CY2008 yearly posting of microbiological data results was based upon the sample analysis completion date.  For this reason, data from CY2008 cannot be directly compared to CY2007 data and prior years' data.
Source: FSIS internal M2K database, CY 2010-2014.

#Typhimurium includes var. 5- (Formerly var. Copenhagen)

Note: For information on the most commonly identified serotypes causing human infection in the United States see:
http://www.cdc.gov/ncezid/dfwed/pdfs/salmonella-annual-report-2012-508c.pdf 
Appendix:
http://www.cdc.gov/ncezid/dfwed/pdfs/salmonella-annual-report-appendices-2012-508c.pdf 

 

Last Modified Nov 06, 2015