Third and Fourth Quarter Results for Serotyping of Salmonellae from Meat and Poultry Products: July–December 2006
All tables and figures are available as an attachment to this document (PDF Only).
The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) issued the Pathogen Reduction; Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (PR/HACCP) Systems, Final Rule on July 25, 1996: Federal Register, Vol. 61, No. 144, pp. 38805-38989 (http://www.fsis.usda.gov/OPPDE/rdad/FRPubs/93-016F.pdf , PDF Only). The PR/HACCP rule sets Salmonella performance standards for establishments slaughtering selected classes of food animals or producing selected classes of raw ground products to verify that industry systems are effective in controlling the contamination of raw meat and poultry products with disease-causing bacteria. Raw products with established performance standards include: carcasses of cows/bulls, steers/heifers, market hogs, and broilers. Processed products measured by performance standards include: ground beef, ground chicken, and ground turkey. The performance standards for these product classes are based on the prevalence of Salmonella as determined from the Agency's nationwide microbiological baseline studies conducted before PR/HACCP was implemented. In addition, turkey carcass sampling for Salmonella was initiated June 2006. Guidance using young turkey carcass baseline levels can be found in Federal Register, Vol.70, No. 32, pp.8058-8060 (http://www.fsis.usda.gov/OPPDE/rdad/FRPubs/02-046N.htm | PDF).
In February 2006, FSIS announced, in the Federal Register, Vol. 71, No. 38, pp. 9772-9777, (http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Frame/FrameRedirect.asp?main=http://www.fsis.usda.gov/OPPDE/rdad/FRPubs/04-026N.htm) that quarterly results from Salmonella verification testing would be posted and that the Agency would be providing individual test results to establishments before completion of a set. The Agency began publishing quarterly reports of Salmonella results (http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Science/Q1_2006_Salmonella_Testing/index.asp ; http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Science/Q2_2006_Salmonella_Testing/index.asp) in 2006 and began a procedure to notify establishments of individual results (http://www.fsis.usda.gov/OPPDE/rdad/FSISNotices/36-06.pdf , PDF Only) on June 29, 2006. In addition, the Agency began the quarterly reporting of Salmonella serotype data as such data provides an opportunity to examine, still further, the association among salmonellae isolated on-farm, from meat and poultry products, and from human cases of salmonellosis. The Agency recognizes that serotyping information alone does not provide definitive associations.
Prior to 2006, there were two phases of the FSIS regulatory program for Salmonella in raw products: non-targeted and targeted testing. Non-targeted or "A" set samples were collected at establishments randomly selected from the population of eligible establishments, with a goal of scheduling every eligible establishment at least once a year. Other codes (such as "B", "C", and "D") represented sample sets collected from establishments targeted for follow-up testing following a failed set.
Beginning June 2006, establishments were scheduled based on new criteria (http://www.fsis.usda.gov/science/scheduling_criteria_salmonella_sets/index.asp) that are risk-based, not random, and are designed to focus FSIS resources on establishments with the most samples positive for Salmonella and the greatest number of samples with serotypes most frequently associated with human salmonellosis, as defined by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/phlisdata/salmonella.htm). While the first quarterly report included only "A" set data, this report summarizes data from all sets. The graphs in this report include all samples from July 2005 forward so that this report is consistent with the 2006 third quarter progress report on Salmonella testing (http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Science/Q3_2006_Salmonella_Testing/index.asp). Given the changes made to the testing program in 2006 and recovery of only a few isolates of a particular serotype during the quarter, trends in quarter-to-quarter results should be interpreted with caution.
- The number of isolates of each serotype, the percent of isolates out of total positive, and the percent of isolates of total samples collected are displayed in Tables 1-8 (July through September [3rd Quarter]) and Tables 9-16 (October through December [4th Quarter]) 2006.
- The ten most commonly isolated serotypes for each product class during each quarter are identified by name, while less commonly identified serotypes are included in the "other serotypes" category. Where there is more than one serotype in tenth place, all serotypes in tenth place are listed.
- Included in the tables are entries classified as "unidentified" isolates for which a single specific serotype could not be determined.
- Figures 1-6 show quarterly, by product class, data for the top six serotypes associated with human illness in 2005 (http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5514a2.htm). The figures display the percent of isolates identified out of total isolates serotyped for each product class by quarter from July 2005.
- Serotype data for Turkey carcasses is reported in Table 8 and 16.
- The y-axis, representing the serotype percentage varies from graph to graph because the level of different serotypes by commodity varies greatly and year-to-year variations in percentages are difficult to discern on one scale of high value.