Quarterly Results for Serotyping of Salmonellae from Meat and Poultry Products: January–December 2009
All tables and figures are available in the PDF version of this document (pp. 3-45).
The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) issued the Pathogen Reduction; Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (PR/HACCP) Systems, Final Rule on July 25, 1996: Federal Register, Vol. 61, No. 144, pp. 38805-38989 (http://www.fsis.usda.gov/OPPDE/rdad/FRPubs/93-016F.pdf, PDF Only). he PR/HACCP rule sets Salmonella performance standards for establishments that slaughter or produce selected classes of food animals or raw ground products. Under PR/HACCP, performance standards were established for carcasses of cows/bulls, steers/heifers, market hogs, broilers, ground beef, ground chicken, and ground turkey based on nationwide microbiological baseline studies conducted before the rule was implemented. In June 2006, FSIS began sampling turkey carcasses for Salmonella. Guidance on standards for turkey carcasses can be found in the Federal Register, Vol. 70, No. 32, pp. 8058-8060 (http://www.fsis.usda.gov/OPPDE/rdad/FRPubs/02-046N.htm | PDF).
Prior to 2006, there were two phases of the FSIS regulatory program for Salmonella in raw products: non-targeted and targeted testing. Non-targeted or "A" set samples were collected at establishments randomly selected from the population of eligible establishments with a goal of scheduling every eligible establishment at least once a year. Other codes (such as "B", "C", and "D") represented sample sets collected from establishments targeted for follow-up testing following a failed set. FSIS replaced the targeted/non-targeted approach with risk-based scheduling in 2006. The serotype data in this report are from all sample sets.
In February 2006, FSIS announced in the Federal Register, Vol. 71, No. 38, pp. 9772-9777, (http://www.fsis.usda.gov/OPPDE/rdad/FRPubs/04-026N.htm | PDF) and described in detail in a Federal Register Notice of January 2008, Vol. 73, No. 18, pp. 4767-4774, (http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Frame/FrameRedirect.asp?main=http://www.fsis.usda.gov/OPPDE/rdad/FRPubs/2006-0034.htm) | PDF that quarterly results from Salmonella verification testing would be posted and that the Agency would provide individual test results to establishments before completion of a set. The Agency has published quarterly Salmonella results since 2006:
- First Quarter, 2009 (PDF Only);
- Second Quarter, 2009 (PDF Only);
- Third Quarter, 2009 (PDF Only);
- Fourth Quarter, 2009 (PDF Only); | More.
In June 2006, FSIS developed new criteria for scheduling establishments (http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Science/Scheduling_Criteria_Salmonella_Sets/index.asp | PDF) that are risk-based and designed to focus FSIS resources on establishments that have the most samples positive for Salmonella and the greatest number of samples with serotypes most frequently associated with human salmonellosis as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/phlisdata/salmonella.htm). Establishments are no longer randomly selected under the new criteria. One of the goals of the revised risk-based program is to identify the source of serotypes of the greatest human health concern and to report those findings directly to establishments. FSIS also now ensures that all pathogens of public health concern are identified regarding both their subtype (serotype and PFGE pattern) and their drug resistance profiles.
This report includes four quarters of Salmonella serotype data for 2009. Data depicted represent samples collected from January 1 through December 31, 2009. The number of isolates of each serotype, the percent of isolates out of total positive, and the percent of isolates of total samples collected are displayed in Tables 1-32. Second quarter results do not match the Agency's quarterly Salmonella published results. A ground beef sample previously reported as positive was later identified as negative.
The 10 most commonly isolated serotypes for each product class during each quarter are identified by name in each table. Less commonly identified serotypes are included in the "other serotypes" category. When there is more than one serotype in tenth place, all serotypes in tenth place are listed. The tables also include entries classified as "unidentified" isolates. A single, specific serotype could not be determined for these isolates.
Figures 1-11 display the percent of isolates identified out of total isolates serotyped for each product class by quarter from July 2005 forward for the top 10 serotypes associated with human illness in 2008 as reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5813a2.htm . For consistency in the graphs, data collected prior to the 2006 revisions were updated to include results from all sets. In reviewing Figures 1-11, the y-axis, representing the serotype percentage, varies from graph to graph because the incidence of different serotypes by commodity varies greatly and year-to-year variations in percentages are difficult to discern on one scale of high value.
Restructuring how Salmonella sets are scheduled means that comparison of results from 2006 onwards to previous years will be less meaningful in terms of trends. Similarly, the changes to the verification program will prevent valid comparisons of testing results over time (e.g., quarter-to-quarter or year-to-year trends).
Tables and Figures: See pp. 3-45 in the PDF version of this report.