Salmonella Serotype Quarterly Results from Meat and Poultry Products: January–June 2011
The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) Pathogen Reduction; Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (PR/HACCP) Systems, Final Rule sets Salmonella performance standards for establishments that slaughter or produce selected classes of food animals or raw ground products (Federal Register, 1996). Nationwide microbiological baseline studies prior to 1996 established the PR/HACCP performance standards for carcasses of cows/bulls, steers/heifers, market hogs, broilers, ground beef, ground chicken, and ground turkey. In June 2006, FSIS began sampling turkey carcasses for Salmonella. Guidance on standards for turkey carcasses is available in the Federal Register (2005).
Prior to 2006, the FSIS regulatory program for Salmonella in raw products consisted of two phases: non-targeted and targeted testing. Non-targeted or "A" set sample collection occurred randomly at selected establishments with a goal of scheduling every eligible establishment at least once a year. Other codes (e.g., "B", "C", and "D") represented sample sets collected from establishments targeted for additional testing following an A set failure.
FSIS replaced the targeted/non-targeted approach with risk-based scheduling in 2006. In June 2006, FSIS developed new criteria for scheduling establishments for sampling. This new process focused FSIS resources on establishments with the most Salmonella positive samples (FSIS, 2006), especially serotypes most frequently associated with human salmonellosis as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009). One of the goals of the revised risk-based program is to identify the source of serotypes of the greatest human health concern and to report those findings directly to establishments.
The Agency provided individual test results to establishments before completion of a set (Federal Register, 2006; Federal Register, 2008). In February 2006, FSIS began reporting quarterly summary results from Salmonella verification testing. The quarterly results for 2010 are provided below.
This report includes serotype data from the risk-based sample sets. The data includes two quarters of Salmonella serotype data for 2011: January-June, 2011. Tables provide the number of isolates of each serotype, the percent of isolates out of total positive, and the percent of isolates of total samples collected.
Each table in this report identifies the 10 most commonly isolated serotypes by name for each product class during each quarter. Less commonly identified serotypes are included in the "other serotypes" category. When there is more than one serotype in tenth place, all serotypes in tenth place are listed. In addition, the tables include entries classified as "unidentified" isolates, which consists of a single, specific serotype that could not be determined.
Among all product types tested in Quarter 1 , the Salmonella serotypes which ranked among the 5 most commonly isolated included:
- Kentucky (47 out of 179 positives),
- Enteritidis (46 out of 179 positives),
- Dublin (7 out of 179 positives),
- Derby (6 out of 179 positives),
- Heidelberg (5 out of 179 positives),
- Johannesburg (5 out of 179 positives),
- Hadar (5 out of 179 positives), and
- Muenster (5 out of 179 positives).
The last four of these serotypes share the 5th ranked position.
Among all product types tested in Quarter 2 , the Salmonella serotypes which ranked among the 5 most commonly isolated included:
- Kentucky (41 out of 155 positives),
- Enteritidis (23 out of 155 positives),
- Montevideo (10 out of 155 positives),
- Adelaide (7 out of 155 positives),
- Hadar (6 out of 155 positives),
- Dublin (6 out of 155 positives).
The last two of these serotypes share the 5th ranked position.
The changes made in the 2006 verification program limit historical data comparisons. Because sampling is risk-based and not meant to be an indicator of national prevalence, caution should be exerted in drawing conclusions and/or trends.
CDC. 2010. Preliminary FoodNet Data on the Incidence of Infection with Pathogens Transmitted Commonly through Food - 10 States, 2009. Accessed on 19 April 2011.
Federal Register. 1996. Pathogen Reduction; Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) Systems, Final Rule. Accessed on 8 January 2012.
Federal Register. 2005. Generic E. coli and Salmonella Baseline Results. Accessed on 19 April 2011.
Federal Register. 2006. Salmonella Verification Sample Results Reporting: Agency Policy and Use in Public Health Protection. Accessed on 8 January 2012.
Federal Register. 2008. Salmonella Verification Sampling Program: Response to Comments and New Agency Policies. Accessed on 8 January 2012.
FSIS. 2006. Scheduling Criteria for Salmonella Sets in Raw Classes of Product. Accessed on 19 April 2011.