Social marketing may mean a shift for you.
Instead of working hard with your staff to
create programs and materials which you believe
will be helpful and beneficial to the public...
And when people don’t come, or they throw
your materials away, you call them...
- Social Marketing’s Distinguishing Features
- Case Studies:
- Food Thermometer Education
- Evaluating a Social Marketing
Intervention: Cardiff Study
Definition: Key Concepts
- Uses commercial marketing techniques and
- Brings about voluntary behavior change
- Targets specific audiences
- Focus on personal welfare and that of
It focuses on one of the most important
aspects of social marketing...voluntary change,
which means that your clients have the right not
to change, or not to do what you want
Social marketing is not coercive, although
legislative advocacy may play a part
Social Change Strategy
- Promote healthy behaviors
- Eat 5 a Day (NCI)
- Breastfeeding (USDA)
- Physical activity (RWJF and AARP)
- Use of meat thermometers (USDA)
- Hand washing (NIH)
- Consumer orientation
- Marketing’s conceptual framework
- Data driven decision making
- Segment audiences
- Set behavioral objectives
- Identify determinants to address
- Willingness to modify the product
- Understand consumers’ perceptions of product
- Consumers’ aspirations
- Exchange time and effort for benefits
- Make an attractive offer
- Create an awareness that the problem
- Demonstrate the product’s benefits
- Help lower the price
The Four P’s: Product, Price, Place, Promotion
- What we’re offering people
- Commodity (tangible good or service)
Product Must Be:
- Solution to a problem
- Defined in terms of the user’s beliefs,
practices, and values
Select a Product
- What is the behavior you want them to adopt?
- What are the benefits they will receive from
the desired behavior?
I hope we’re thinking about services now in
a different light.
Now, we want to look at the price they pay
for adopting the product we’re offering to them.
These costs may come in the form of money.
PSI, for example, talked with teens and found that
they should charge a quarter for the condoms in
the vending machines. Teens said that was
something they could afford (viewed it as pocket
change). Charging something for the product also
gave it value. The key is to determine the
appropriate price, with the help of your target
audience, of course.
The price may also come in the form of time,
loss of self esteem, or embarrassment.
Loss of pleasure may be a very real cost to
your target audience. Unlike Coke, which has a
good taste, many of the products we’re offering
ask people to give up things which taste good or
which they enjoy doing.
The key is to see how your target audience
view the price and the benefits, in order to lower
the price and enhance the benefits.
- The cost of adopting the product
- Loss of self esteem
- Psychic hassle
- What must people exchange to get product
Place or Channels
The next P is place.
Here we consider, where will they be when
they receive your message? What mood will they be
in? Is that the right place? In addition, we are
thinking about the appropriate place for
distribution of your product.
For example, is the most appropriate place
for a television ad for teens about using condoms,
for it to show at the dinner table when the teen
is eating with the family? You’d need to ask your
Consider finding the right place for a
billboard, or a flyer about your program.
Next, think about, where are people most
likely to go for your product?
Avoid creating a demand which can then not
be met because the appropriate people aren’t
available to fulfill the demand. For example,
don’t tell people to call the health department to
find out more about breastfeeding, when no one at
the health department knows anything about
- Where tangible products purchased
- Where people are in right frame of mind to
attend to message
- Where service is provided
- Where people will act
- Easy to find and use
Some of the important considerations for
- will the product be available at the
place you have instructed people to go/call;
will there be enough to meet the demand
- is the place easy to use/access; don’t
place a billboard in West Tampa for people to
come to Carrollwood for prenatal care. That’s
too much to ask.
- is the channel you have chosen for your
message appropriate for that audience; you
wouldn’t place a public service announcement for
the elderly on 93.3 WFLZ, because they aren’t
likely to listen to that radio station
- have you chosen the right time for your
message to be delivered; you might better place
your ad for senior citizens on TV, and if it’s
for women, the best time might be during the
afternoon soap operas.
The important thing is to ask your
audience these questions. You can’t go wrong if
- Where is the behavior practiced?
- Where are the decisions made?
- Where will they be attentive to message?
- What most people associate with social
- More than advertising
Promotion is the final P social marketing
takes from marketing. This is what most people
associate with social marketing, but as you are
now well aware, it is only one piece of the
- Policy developments
- Service delivery
- Program development
- Professional training
- Staff motivational
- Resource guide
- Consumer education
- Public information
- Public relations
- Message design elements
- Type of appeal
Promotion has to do with the creation of
educational messages which are memorable and
We’ll talk more later about the
important message design elements you need to
consider, but they include:
- the type of appeal you will choose for
- the tone your message will take
- picking the appropriate spokesperson
- choosing the correct aperture for the
- What competes with your product?
- How can you position your product to be more
- What image does it have among consumers?
- Can you enhance benefits?
- Can you lower costs?
Data Based Decision Making
- Formative Research
- Select audience segment to target
- Specific behavior to promote
- Identify the factors that have greatest
- Answers used to design effective
interventions around 4 Ps
First Decision: Whom Do You Hope to Reach?
- Do you have resources to reach everyone?
- Will they all respond to they same approach?
Segmentation: Marketing Model
- Marketers know they cannot appeal to all
buyers in same way
- Identify priority populations
- Use combination of behavioral,attitudinal,
and demographic data
Segment Audience Based On….
- Current behavior
- Readiness to change
- Desired benefits
- Perceived barriers or costs demographics
- Many creative segmentation schemes
Select Target of Opportunity
Criteria for selecting targets
- Potential impact
- Need: incidence and/or severity
- For secondary audiences
- Influence on primary audience
Identify Behavioral Objective for Each Segment
- Identify realistic goal for each audience
- Focus on behavior not knowledge
- Conduct research to assess response to
- Length of time
- Other aspects of message
Identify Factors To Address
- Need to know which factors have greatest
influence on behavior
- External Factors
- Internal Factors
- Marketers focus on these first:
- Product design features
- Cultural context
- More difficult to change:
- Knowledge and beliefs
- Perceived risk
- Perceived consequences
- Social norms
- Self efficacy
Findings Used to Develop A Social Marketing
- Primary target segment(s)
- Behavioral recommendation
- Product strategy: what benefit to promise
- Pricing strategy: how to make affordable
- Placement: where to reach and remind audience
- Promotion: multifaceted approach with
carefully designed communication plan
For more information
- Social Marketing Conference
- Social Marketing Quarterly
- Taylor and Francis publishers webpage