for Evaluating Retained Water
in the Following Single Ingredient Poultry Product: Young Chicken
Note: The following is an example protocol and should
not to be used verbatim. Because each establishment is unique, each
establishment should design their protocol to reflect the individual
characteristics of their operations.
1.0 Purpose Statement
purpose of this protocol is to determine the amount of
water absorption and retention in young chicken carcasses
that is unavoidable while achieving the regulatory pathogen
reduction performance standard for Salmonella (as set forth
in the PR/HACCP regulations – 9 CFR 381.94(b) and the
time/temperature requirements set forth in 9 CFR 381.66.
2.0 Type of washing and chilling system
The facility evisceration lines utilize a series of two pre-chiller
external sprays, one inside-outside bird washer, immediately
followed by the trisodium phosphate antimicrobial system.
This is followed by a 60 second drip period prior to entering
the cold-water chiller. The chiller is a Stork Gamco model
RS-6 which uses a drag-through type mechanism to
transport the birds through the chiller. It has a prechiller
section, which receives water from the main body of the
chiller. Chilled water from the fresh and recirculated sources
3.0 Configuration and modification of the chiller
The prechiller length is 50 feet with a dwell time of
minutes. The main chiller length is 100 feet with a dwell time
of 45 minutes. The number of evisceration lines feeding into
the chiller system is 2.
4.0 Special features in the chilling process:
5.0 Variable factors that affect water absorption and
4.1 The chiller uses chlorine as an antimicrobial
at 20 PPM.
After existing the
chiller system the birds are placed on a
drip line that is 100
feet in length and drains the whole
carcasses for 5 minutes
before reaching whole carcass
6.0 Standards to be met by the chilling system:
5.1 The scalding temperature used is
approximately 138° F. The
birds are in the
chiller system for 65 minutes. The water
temperature of the
pre-chiller is 65 degrees Fahrenheit. The
water temperature in
the main chiller is 36 degrees
chiller uses air type agitation.
The current FSIS Salmonella pathogen reduction
performance standards, as set forth in the PR/HACCP final
rule, will be met.
7.0 Testing methodology
Water absorption and retention
7.1.1 Samples will be collected immediately prior to
two pre-chiller rinses on the evisceration line.
184.108.40.206 *(insert number) random A-grade
carcasses will be tagged and weighed in
*(insert number) groups of *(insert
number) carcasses. The *(insert number)
groups will be distributed evenly
throughout the production period
(beginning, middle, and end) with the
production period being defined as
sanitation to sanitation.
7.1.2 Samples will be collected from carcasses
at point of
220.127.116.11 The tagged carcasses from 18.104.22.168 will
weighed immediately prior to packaging.
22.214.171.124 These postchiller weights will be
compared to the pre-chiller weights to
determine the retained water gained using
a mathematical difference calculation
(prepackaging weight minus pre-chiller
weight) as a percentage.
7.2 Pathogen reduction measurement
*(insert number) groups of *(insert number) carcasses will
126.96.36.199 The percent salmonella positive
rate will be
be randomly selected post-chiller from the same flocks as
those tested in Section 7.1. The *(insert number) groups
will be distributed evenly throughout the production period
(beginning, middle, and end) with the production period
being defined as sanitation to sanitation.
determined using the post-chiller carcass rinse
salmonella performance standard methodology.
7.3 Evaluation of chiller factors
188.8.131.52 Two chiller settings will be evaluated.
setting of 36°F
Temperature setting of 39°F
184.108.40.206 Two chiller settings will be evaluated.
220.127.116.11.1 Air agitation setting of 80 RPM
18.104.22.168.2 Air agitation setting of 40 RPM
22.214.171.124 A two-by-two factorial table will be used to
evaluate the effect of these chiller settings on the
percent moisture retention (Section 7.1) and on
the pathogen reduction measurements (Section
126.96.36.199 Each of the four chiller setting combinations
be evaluated for three processing periods (defined
as sanitation to sanitation). Each processing
period will be considered a replicate.
8.0 Evaluation and Reporting of Data
9.0 Explanation of how the conclusions will be
8.1 The results achieved from the three
replicates per chiller
setting combination will be
averaged and reported as the final
result for each chiller
Carcass weight differences will be determined using a
mathematical difference calculation (prepackaging
weight minus pre-chiller weight) for each carcass
group resulting in recorded weight difference results.
The weight difference obtained per carcass group will
be divided by the pre-chiller wash weight per carcass
group to determine the % moisture retention
prepackaging per group. The results will be averaged
to obtain the estimated average % moisture retention
at point of packaging.
salmonella data will be reported as the number
of positive samples/number of samples tested x 100
Conclusions will be determined by comparing the baseline
pathogen reduction levels achieved pre-protocol
implementation with the post-protocol implementation
pathogen reduction results. This comparison will be evaluated
according to the specifications detailed in section 6.1.
The amount of moisture retention that is unavoidable to
achieve the above food safety criteria will be reported.
(*) Each establishment should insert statistically significant and
verifiable information that reflects their unique operations.
[Return to Related